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Introduction to Radicals and Rational Exponents

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this section, you will be able to:
• Evaluate square roots.
• Use the product rule to simplify square roots.
• Use the quotient rule to simplify square roots.
• Add and subtract square roots.
• Rationalize denominators.
• Use rational roots.
A hardware store sells 16-ft ladders and 24-ft ladders. A window is located 12 feet above the ground. A ladder needs to be purchased that will reach the window from a point on the ground 5 feet from the building. To find out the length of ladder needed, we can draw a right triangle as shown in Figure 1, and use the Pythagorean Theorem.
Figure 1

\begin{align} {a}^{2}+{b}^{2}& = {c}^{2} \\ {5}^{2}+{12}^{2}& = {c}^{2} \\ 169& = {c}^{2} \end{align}

Now we need to find out the length that, when squared, is 169, to determine which ladder to choose. In other word we need to find a square root. In this section we will investigate methods of finding solutions to problems such as this one.