# Inverse Functions

A reversible heat pump is a climate-control system that is an air conditioner and a heater in a single device. Operated in one direction, it pumps heat out of a house to provide cooling. Operating in reverse, it pumps heat into the building from the outside, even in cool weather, to provide heating. As a heater, a heat pump is several times more efficient than conventional electrical resistance heating.

If some physical machines can run in two directions, we might ask whether some of the function "machines" we have been studying can also run backwards. Figure 1 provides a visual representation of this question. In this section, we will consider the reverse nature of functions.**Figure 1.**Can a function "machine" operate in reverse?

## Characteristics of Inverse Functions

Suppose a fashion designer traveling to Milan for a fashion show wants to know what the temperature will be. He is not familiar with the**Celsius**scale. To get an idea of how temperature measurements are related, he asks his assistant, Betty, to convert 75 degrees

**Fahrenheit**to degrees Celsius. She finds the formula [latex]C=\frac{5}{9}\left(F - 32\right)[/latex] and substitutes 75 for [latex]F[/latex] to calculate [latex]\frac{5}{9}\left(75 - 32\right)\approx {24}^{ \circ} {C}[/latex]. Knowing that a comfortable 75 degrees Fahrenheit is about 24 degrees Celsius, he sends his assistant the week’s weather forecast for Milan, and asks her to convert all of the temperatures to degrees Fahrenheit. At first, Betty considers using the formula she has already found to complete the conversions. After all, she knows her algebra, and can easily solve the equation for [latex]F[/latex] after substituting a value for [latex]C[/latex]. For example, to convert 26 degrees Celsius, she could write

[latex]\begin{array}{l}26=\frac{5}{9}\left(F - 32\right)\hfill \\ 26\cdot \frac{9}{5}=F - 32\hfill \\ F=26\cdot \frac{9}{5}+32\approx 79\hfill \end{array}[/latex]

After considering this option for a moment, however, she realizes that solving the equation for each of the temperatures will be awfully tedious. She realizes that since evaluation is easier than solving, it would be much more convenient to have a different formula, one that takes the Celsius temperature and outputs the Fahrenheit temperature. The formula for which Betty is searching corresponds to the idea of an**inverse function**, which is a function for which the input of the original function becomes the output of the inverse function and the output of the original function becomes the input of the inverse function. Given a function [latex]f\left(x\right)[/latex], we represent its inverse as [latex]{f}^{-1}\left(x\right)[/latex], read as "[latex]f[/latex] inverse of [latex]x[/latex]." The raised [latex]-1[/latex] is part of the notation. It is not an exponent; it does not imply a power of [latex]-1[/latex] . In other words, [latex]{f}^{-1}\left(x\right)[/latex] does

*not*mean [latex]\frac{1}{f\left(x\right)}[/latex] because [latex]\frac{1}{f\left(x\right)}[/latex] is the reciprocal of [latex]f[/latex] and not the inverse. The "exponent-like" notation comes from an analogy between function composition and multiplication: just as [latex]{a}^{-1}a=1[/latex] (1 is the identity element for multiplication) for any nonzero number [latex]a[/latex], so [latex]{f}^{-1}\circ f[/latex] equals the identity function, that is,

[latex]\left({f}^{-1}\circ f\right)\left(x\right)={f}^{-1}\left(f\left(x\right)\right)={f}^{-1}\left(y\right)=x[/latex]

This holds for all [latex]x[/latex] in the domain of [latex]f[/latex]. Informally, this means that inverse functions "undo" each other. However, just as zero does not have a**reciprocal**, some functions do not have inverses. Given a function [latex]f\left(x\right)[/latex], we can verify whether some other function [latex]g\left(x\right)[/latex] is the inverse of [latex]f\left(x\right)[/latex] by checking whether either [latex]g\left(f\left(x\right)\right)=x[/latex] or [latex]f\left(g\left(x\right)\right)=x[/latex] is true. We can test whichever equation is more convenient to work with because they are logically equivalent (that is, if one is true, then so is the other.) For example, [latex]y=4x[/latex] and [latex]y=\frac{1}{4}x[/latex] are inverse functions.

[latex]\left({f}^{-1}\circ f\right)\left(x\right)={f}^{-1}\left(4x\right)=\frac{1}{4}\left(4x\right)=x[/latex]

and[latex]\left({f}^{}\circ {f}^{-1}\right)\left(x\right)=f\left(\frac{1}{4}x\right)=4\left(\frac{1}{4}x\right)=x[/latex]

A few coordinate pairs from the graph of the function [latex]y=4x[/latex] are (−2, −8), (0, 0), and (2, 8). A few coordinate pairs from the graph of the function [latex]y=\frac{1}{4}x[/latex] are (−8, −2), (0, 0), and (8, 2). If we interchange the input and output of each coordinate pair of a function, the interchanged coordinate pairs would appear on the graph of the inverse function.### A General Note: Inverse Function

For any**one-to-one function**[latex]f\left(x\right)=y[/latex], a function [latex]{f}^{-1}\left(x\right)[/latex] is an

**inverse function**of [latex]f[/latex] if [latex]{f}^{-1}\left(y\right)=x[/latex]. This can also be written as [latex]{f}^{-1}\left(f\left(x\right)\right)=x[/latex] for all [latex]x[/latex] in the domain of [latex]f[/latex]. It also follows that [latex]f\left({f}^{-1}\left(x\right)\right)=x[/latex] for all [latex]x[/latex] in the domain of [latex]{f}^{-1}[/latex] if [latex]{f}^{-1}[/latex] is the inverse of [latex]f[/latex]. The notation [latex]{f}^{-1}[/latex] is read [latex]\text{"}f[/latex] inverse." Like any other function, we can use any variable name as the input for [latex]{f}^{-1}[/latex], so we will often write [latex]{f}^{-1}\left(x\right)[/latex], which we read as [latex]"f[/latex] inverse of [latex]x."[/latex] Keep in mind that [latex]{f}^{-1}\left(x\right)\ne \frac{1}{f\left(x\right)}[/latex] and not all functions have inverses.

### Example: Identifying an Inverse Function for a Given Input-Output Pair

If for a particular one-to-one function [latex]f\left(2\right)=4[/latex] and [latex]f\left(5\right)=12[/latex], what are the corresponding input and output values for the inverse function?Answer: The inverse function reverses the input and output quantities, so if

[latex]\begin{array}{c}f\left(2\right)=4,\text{ then }{f}^{-1}\left(4\right)=2;\\ f\left(5\right)=12,{\text{ then f}}^{-1}\left(12\right)=5.\end{array}[/latex]

Alternatively, if we want to name the inverse function [latex]g[/latex], then [latex]g\left(4\right)=2[/latex] and [latex]g\left(12\right)=5[/latex].#### Analysis of the Solution

Notice that if we show the coordinate pairs in a table form, the input and output are clearly reversed.[latex]\left(x,f\left(x\right)\right)[/latex] | [latex]\left(x,g\left(x\right)\right)[/latex] |
---|---|

[latex]\left(2,4\right)[/latex] | [latex]\left(4,2\right)[/latex] |

[latex]\left(5,12\right)[/latex] | [latex]\left(12,5\right)[/latex] |

### Try It

Given that [latex]{h}^{-1}\left(6\right)=2[/latex], what are the corresponding input and output values of the original function [latex]h?[/latex]Answer: [latex-display]h(2)=6[/latex-display]

### How To: Given two functions [latex]f\left(x\right)[/latex] and [latex]g\left(x\right)[/latex], test whether the functions are inverses of each other.

- Determine whether [latex]f\left(g\left(x\right)\right)=x[/latex] or [latex]g\left(f\left(x\right)\right)=x[/latex].
- If either statement is true, then both are true, and [latex]g={f}^{-1}[/latex] and [latex]f={g}^{-1}[/latex]. If either statement is false, then both are false, and [latex]g\ne {f}^{-1}[/latex] and [latex]f\ne {g}^{-1}[/latex].

### Example: Testing Inverse Relationships Algebraically

If [latex]f\left(x\right)=\frac{1}{x+2}[/latex] and [latex]g\left(x\right)=\frac{1}{x}-2[/latex], is [latex]g={f}^{-1}?[/latex]Answer:

[latex]\begin{array}{l} g\left(f\left(x\right)\right)=\frac{1}{\left(\frac{1}{x+2}\right)}{-2 }\hfill\\={ x }+{ 2 } -{ 2 }\hfill\\={ x }\hfill \end{array}[/latex]

so[latex]g={f}^{-1}\text{ and }f={g}^{-1}[/latex]

This is enough to answer yes to the question, but we can also verify the other formula.[latex]\begin{array}{l} f\left(g\left(x\right)\right)=\frac{1}{\frac{1}{x}-2+2}\\ =\frac{1}{\frac{1}{x}}\hfill \\ =x\hfill \end{array}[/latex]

#### Analysis of the Solution

Notice the inverse operations are in reverse order of the operations from the original function.### Try It

If [latex]f\left(x\right)={x}^{3}-4[/latex] and [latex]g\left(x\right)=\sqrt[3]{x+4}[/latex], is [latex]g={f}^{-1}?[/latex]Answer: Yes

### Example: Determining Inverse Relationships for Power Functions

If [latex]f\left(x\right)={x}^{3}[/latex] (the cube function) and [latex]g\left(x\right)=\frac{1}{3}x[/latex], is [latex]g={f}^{-1}?[/latex]Answer: [latex-display]f\left(g\left(x\right)\right)=\frac{{x}^{3}}{27}\ne x[/latex-display] No, the functions are not inverses.

#### Analysis of the Solution

The correct inverse to the cube is, of course, the cube root [latex]\sqrt[3]{x}={x}^{\frac{1}{3}}[/latex], that is, the one-third is an exponent, not a multiplier.### Try It

If [latex]f\left(x\right)={\left(x - 1\right)}^{3}\text{and}g\left(x\right)=\sqrt[3]{x}+1[/latex], is [latex]g={f}^{-1}?[/latex]Answer: Yes

### Determine the Domain and Range of an Inverse Function

The outputs of the function [latex]f[/latex] are the inputs to [latex]{f}^{-1}[/latex], so the range of [latex]f[/latex] is also the domain of [latex]{f}^{-1}[/latex]. Likewise, because the inputs to [latex]f[/latex] are the outputs of [latex]{f}^{-1}[/latex], the domain of [latex]f[/latex] is the range of [latex]{f}^{-1}[/latex]. We can visualize the situation.- The domain of [latex]f[/latex] = range of [latex]{f}^{-1}[/latex] = [latex]\left[1,\infty \right)[/latex].
- The domain of [latex]{f}^{-1}[/latex] = range of [latex]f[/latex] = [latex]\left[0,\infty \right)[/latex].

**Q & A**

**Is it possible for a function to have more than one inverse?**

*No. If two supposedly different functions, say, [latex]g[/latex] and [latex]h[/latex], both meet the definition of being inverses of another function [latex]f[/latex], then you can prove that [latex]g=h[/latex]. We have just seen that some functions only have inverses if we restrict the domain of the original function. In these cases, there may be more than one way to restrict the domain, leading to different inverses. However, on any one domain, the original function still has only one unique inverse.*

### A General Note: Domain and Range of Inverse Functions

The range of a function [latex]f\left(x\right)[/latex] is the domain of the inverse function [latex]{f}^{-1}\left(x\right)[/latex]. The domain of [latex]f\left(x\right)[/latex] is the range of [latex]{f}^{-1}\left(x\right)[/latex].**How To: Given a function, find the domain and range of its inverse.
**

- If the function is one-to-one, write the range of the original function as the domain of the inverse, and write the domain of the original function as the range of the inverse.
- If the domain of the original function needs to be restricted to make it one-to-one, then this restricted domain becomes the range of the inverse function.

### Example: Finding the Inverses of Toolkit Functions

Identify which of the toolkit functions besides the quadratic function are not one-to-one, and find a restricted domain on which each function is one-to-one, if any. The toolkit functions are reviewed below. We restrict the domain in such a fashion that the function assumes all*y*-values exactly once.

Constant | Identity | Quadratic | Cubic | Reciprocal |

[latex]f\left(x\right)=c[/latex] | [latex]f\left(x\right)=x[/latex] | [latex]f\left(x\right)={x}^{2}[/latex] | [latex]f\left(x\right)={x}^{3}[/latex] | [latex]f\left(x\right)=\frac{1}{x}[/latex] |

Reciprocal squared | Cube root | Square root | Absolute value | |

[latex]f\left(x\right)=\frac{1}{{x}^{2}}[/latex] | [latex]f\left(x\right)=\sqrt[3]{x}[/latex] | [latex]f\left(x\right)=\sqrt{x}[/latex] | [latex]f\left(x\right)=|x|[/latex] |

Answer: The constant function is not one-to-one, and there is no domain (except a single point) on which it could be one-to-one, so the constant function has no meaningful inverse. The absolute value function can be restricted to the domain [latex]\left[0,\infty \right)[/latex], where it is equal to the identity function. The reciprocal-squared function can be restricted to the domain [latex]\left(0,\infty \right)[/latex].

#### Analysis of the Solution

We can see that these functions (if unrestricted) are not one-to-one by looking at their graphs. They both would fail the horizontal line test. However, if a function is restricted to a certain domain so that it passes the horizontal line test, then in that restricted domain, it can have an inverse.### Try It

The domain of function [latex]f[/latex] is [latex]\left(1,\infty \right)[/latex] and the range of function [latex]f[/latex] is [latex]\left(\mathrm{-\infty },-2\right)[/latex]. Find the domain and range of the inverse function.Answer: The domain of function [latex]{f}^{-1}[/latex] is [latex]\left(-\infty \text{,}-2\right)[/latex] and the range of function [latex]{f}^{-1}[/latex] is [latex]\left(1,\infty \right)[/latex].

## Define and Graph an Inverse

Once we have a one-to-one function, we can evaluate its inverse at specific inverse function inputs or construct a complete representation of the inverse function in many cases.### Inverting Tabular Functions

Suppose we want to find the inverse of a function represented in table form. Remember that the domain of a function is the range of the inverse and the range of the function is the domain of the inverse. So we need to interchange the domain and range. Each row (or column) of inputs becomes the row (or column) of outputs for the inverse function. Similarly, each row (or column) of outputs becomes the row (or column) of inputs for the inverse function.### Example: Interpreting the Inverse of a Tabular Function

A function [latex]f\left(t\right)[/latex] is given below, showing distance in miles that a car has traveled in [latex]t[/latex] minutes. Find and interpret [latex]{f}^{-1}\left(70\right)[/latex].[latex]t\text{ (minutes)}[/latex] |
30 | 50 | 70 | 90 |

[latex]f\left(t\right)\text{ (miles)}[/latex] |
20 | 40 | 60 | 70 |

Answer: The inverse function takes an output of [latex]f[/latex] and returns an input for [latex]f[/latex]. So in the expression [latex]{f}^{-1}\left(70\right)[/latex], 70 is an output value of the original function, representing 70 miles. The inverse will return the corresponding input of the original function [latex]f[/latex], 90 minutes, so [latex]{f}^{-1}\left(70\right)=90[/latex]. The interpretation of this is that, to drive 70 miles, it took 90 minutes. Alternatively, recall that the definition of the inverse was that if [latex]f\left(a\right)=b[/latex], then [latex]{f}^{-1}\left(b\right)=a[/latex]. By this definition, if we are given [latex]{f}^{-1}\left(70\right)=a[/latex], then we are looking for a value [latex]a[/latex] so that [latex]f\left(a\right)=70[/latex]. In this case, we are looking for a [latex]t[/latex] so that [latex]f\left(t\right)=70[/latex], which is when [latex]t=90[/latex].

### Try It

Using the table below, find and interpret (a) [latex]\text{ }f\left(60\right)[/latex], and (b) [latex]\text{ }{f}^{-1}\left(60\right)[/latex].[latex]t\text{ (minutes)}[/latex] | 30 | 50 | 60 | 70 | 90 |

[latex]f\left(t\right)\text{ (miles)}[/latex] | 20 | 40 | 50 | 60 | 70 |

Answer: a. [latex]f\left(60\right)=50[/latex]. In 60 minutes, 50 miles are traveled. b. [latex]{f}^{-1}\left(60\right)=70[/latex]. To travel 60 miles, it will take 70 minutes.

### Evaluating the Inverse of a Function, Given a Graph of the Original Function

The domain of a function can be read by observing the horizontal extent of its graph. We find the domain of the inverse function by observing the*vertical*extent of the graph of the original function, because this corresponds to the horizontal extent of the inverse function. Similarly, we find the range of the inverse function by observing the

*horizontal*extent of the graph of the original function, as this is the vertical extent of the inverse function. If we want to evaluate an inverse function, we find its input within its domain, which is all or part of the vertical axis of the original function’s graph.

### How To: Given the graph of a function, evaluate its inverse at specific points.

- Find the desired input on the
*y*-axis of the given graph. - Read the inverse function’s output from the
*x*-axis of the given graph.

### Example: Evaluating a Function and Its Inverse from a Graph at Specific Points

A function [latex]g\left(x\right)[/latex] is given below. Find [latex]g\left(3\right)[/latex] and [latex]{g}^{-1}\left(3\right)[/latex].Answer:
To evaluate [latex]g\left(3\right)[/latex], we find 3 on the *x*-axis and find the corresponding output value on the *y*-axis. The point [latex]\left(3,1\right)[/latex] tells us that [latex]g\left(3\right)=1[/latex].
To evaluate [latex]{g}^{-1}\left(3\right)[/latex], recall that by definition [latex]{g}^{-1}\left(3\right)[/latex] means the value of *x* for which [latex]g\left(x\right)=3[/latex]. By looking for the output value 3 on the vertical axis, we find the point [latex]\left(5,3\right)[/latex] on the graph, which means [latex]g\left(5\right)=3[/latex], so by definition, [latex]{g}^{-1}\left(3\right)=5[/latex].

### Try It

Using the graph in the previous example, (a) find [latex]{g}^{-1}\left(1\right)[/latex], and (b) estimate [latex]{g}^{-1}\left(4\right)[/latex].Answer: a. 3; b. 5.6

### Finding Inverses of Functions Represented by Formulas

Sometimes we will need to know an inverse function for all elements of its domain, not just a few. If the original function is given as a formula—for example, [latex]y[/latex] as a function of [latex]x-[/latex] we can often find the inverse function by solving to obtain [latex]x[/latex] as a function of [latex]y[/latex].### How To: Given a function represented by a formula, find the inverse.

- Make sure [latex]f[/latex] is a one-to-one function.
- Solve for [latex]x[/latex].
- Interchange [latex]x[/latex] and [latex]y[/latex].

### Example: Inverting the Fahrenheit-to-Celsius Function

Find a formula for the inverse function that gives Fahrenheit temperature as a function of Celsius temperature.[latex]C=\frac{5}{9}\left(F - 32\right)[/latex]

Answer:

[latex]\begin{array}{c}\hfill{ C }=\frac{5}{9}\left(F - 32\right)\hfill \\ C\cdot \frac{9}{5}=F - 32\hfill \\ F=\frac{9}{5}C+32\hfill \end{array}[/latex]

By solving in general, we have uncovered the inverse function. If[latex]C=h\left(F\right)=\frac{5}{9}\left(F - 32\right)[/latex],

then[latex]F={h}^{-1}\left(C\right)=\frac{9}{5}C+32[/latex].

In this case, we introduced a function [latex]h[/latex] to represent the conversion because the input and output variables are descriptive, and writing [latex]{C}^{-1}[/latex] could get confusing.### Try It

Solve for [latex]x[/latex] in terms of [latex]y[/latex] given [latex]y=\frac{1}{3}\left(x - 5\right)[/latex]Answer: [latex-display]x=3y+5[/latex-display]

### Example: Solving to Find an Inverse Function

Find the inverse of the function [latex]f\left(x\right)=\frac{2}{x - 3}+4[/latex].Answer: [latex-display]\begin{array}{l}y=\frac{2}{x - 3}+4\hfill & \text{Set up an equation}.\hfill \\ y - 4=\frac{2}{x - 3}\hfill & \text{Subtract 4 from both sides}.\hfill \\ x - 3=\frac{2}{y - 4}\hfill & \text{Multiply both sides by }x - 3\text{ and divide by }y - 4.\hfill \\ x=\frac{2}{y - 4}+3\hfill & \text{Add 3 to both sides}.\hfill \end{array}[/latex-display] So [latex]{f}^{-1}\left(y\right)=\frac{2}{y - 4}+3[/latex] or [latex]{f}^{-1}\left(x\right)=\frac{2}{x - 4}+3[/latex].

#### Analysis of the Solution

The domain and range of [latex]f[/latex] exclude the values 3 and 4, respectively. [latex]f[/latex] and [latex]{f}^{-1}[/latex] are equal at two points but are not the same function, as we can see by creating the table below.[latex]x[/latex] |
1 | 2 | 5 | [latex]{f}^{-1}\left(y\right)[/latex] |

[latex]f\left(x\right)[/latex] |
3 | 2 | 5 | [latex]y[/latex] |

### Example: Solving to Find an Inverse with Radicals

Find the inverse of the function [latex]f\left(x\right)=2+\sqrt{x - 4}[/latex].Answer: [latex-display]\begin{array}{l}y=2+\sqrt{x - 4}\hfill \\ {\left(y - 2\right)}^{2}=x - 4\hfill \\ x={\left(y - 2\right)}^{2}+4\hfill \end{array}[/latex-display] So [latex]{f}^{-1}\left(x\right)={\left(x - 2\right)}^{2}+4[/latex]. The domain of [latex]f[/latex] is [latex]\left[4,\infty \right)[/latex]. Notice that the range of [latex]f[/latex] is [latex]\left[2,\infty \right)[/latex], so this means that the domain of the inverse function [latex]{f}^{-1}[/latex] is also [latex]\left[2,\infty \right)[/latex].

#### Analysis of the Solution

The formula we found for [latex]{f}^{-1}\left(x\right)[/latex] looks like it would be valid for all real [latex]x[/latex]. However, [latex]{f}^{-1}[/latex] itself must have an inverse (namely, [latex]f[/latex] ) so we have to restrict the domain of [latex]{f}^{-1}[/latex] to [latex]\left[2,\infty \right)[/latex] in order to make [latex]{f}^{-1}[/latex] a one-to-one function. This domain of [latex]{f}^{-1}[/latex] is exactly the range of [latex]f[/latex].### Try It

What is the inverse of the function [latex]f\left(x\right)=2-\sqrt{x}[/latex]? State the domains of both the function and the inverse function.Answer: [latex]{f}^{-1}\left(x\right)={\left(2-x\right)}^{2};\text{domain}\text{of}f:\left[0,\infty \right);\text{domain}\text{of}{f}^{-1}:\left(-\infty ,2\right]\\[/latex]

### Graph a Function's Inverse

Now that we can find the inverse of a function, we will explore the graphs of functions and their inverses. Let us return to the quadratic function [latex]f\left(x\right)={x}^{2}[/latex] restricted to the domain [latex]\left[0,\infty \right)[/latex], on which this function is one-to-one, and graph it as below.**Restricting the domain**to [latex]\left[0,\infty \right)[/latex] makes the function one-to-one (it will obviously pass the horizontal line test), so it has an inverse on this restricted domain. We already know that the inverse of the toolkit quadratic function is the square root function, that is, [latex]{f}^{-1}\left(x\right)=\sqrt{x}[/latex]. What happens if we graph both [latex]f\text{ }[/latex] and [latex]{f}^{-1}[/latex] on the same set of axes, using the [latex]x\text{-}[/latex] axis for the input to both [latex]f\text{ and }{f}^{-1}?[/latex] We notice a distinct relationship: The graph of [latex]{f}^{-1}\left(x\right)[/latex] is the graph of [latex]f\left(x\right)[/latex] reflected about the diagonal line [latex]y=x[/latex], which we will call the identity line, shown below.

### Example: Finding the Inverse of a Function Using Reflection about the Identity Line

Given the graph of [latex]f\left(x\right)[/latex], sketch a graph of [latex]{f}^{-1}\left(x\right)[/latex].Answer: This is a one-to-one function, so we will be able to sketch an inverse. Note that the graph shown has an apparent domain of [latex]\left(0,\infty \right)[/latex] and range of [latex]\left(-\infty ,\infty \right)[/latex], so the inverse will have a domain of [latex]\left(-\infty ,\infty \right)[/latex] and range of [latex]\left(0,\infty \right)[/latex]. If we reflect this graph over the line [latex]y=x[/latex], the point [latex]\left(1,0\right)[/latex] reflects to [latex]\left(0,1\right)[/latex] and the point [latex]\left(4,2\right)[/latex] reflects to [latex]\left(2,4\right)[/latex]. Sketching the inverse on the same axes as the original graph gives us the result in the graph below.

**Q & A**

**Is there any function that is equal to its own inverse?**

*Yes. If [latex]f={f}^{-1}[/latex], then [latex]f\left(f\left(x\right)\right)=x[/latex], and we can think of several functions that have this property. The identity function does, and so does the reciprocal function, because*

[latex]\frac{1}{\frac{1}{x}}=x[/latex]

*Any function [latex]f\left(x\right)=c-x[/latex], where [latex]c[/latex] is a constant, is also equal to its own inverse.*

## Key Concepts

- If [latex]g\left(x\right)[/latex] is the inverse of [latex]f\left(x\right)[/latex], then
- [latex]g\left(f\left(x\right)\right)=f\left(g\left(x\right)\right)=x[/latex].
- Each of the toolkit functions has an inverse.
- For a function to have an inverse, it must be one-to-one (pass the horizontal line test).
- A function that is not one-to-one over its entire domain may be one-to-one on part of its domain.
- For a tabular function, exchange the input and output rows to obtain the inverse.
- The inverse of a function can be determined at specific points on its graph.
- To find the inverse of a formula, solve the equation [latex]y=f\left(x\right)[/latex] for [latex]x[/latex] as a function of [latex]y[/latex]. Then exchange the labels [latex]x[/latex] and [latex]y[/latex].
- The graph of an inverse function is the reflection of the graph of the original function across the line [latex]y=x[/latex].

## Glossary

- inverse function
- for any one-to-one function [latex]f\left(x\right)[/latex], the inverse is a function [latex]{f}^{-1}\left(x\right)[/latex] such that [latex]{f}^{-1}\left(f\left(x\right)\right)=x[/latex] for all [latex]x[/latex] in the domain of [latex]f[/latex]; this also implies that [latex]f\left({f}^{-1}\left(x\right)\right)=x[/latex] for all [latex]x[/latex] in the domain of [latex]{f}^{-1}[/latex]

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